Digital computer and its specifications

Digital computer

 

 

A digital computer is a programmed device that processes information by manipulating symbols according to logical rules. Digital computers have a wide range of types, from tiny special purpose devices built into cars and other devices to familiar desktop computers, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers. The fastest supercomputer, in early 2003, can execute up to 36 trillion instructions (basic computation operations) per second; this record is certainly broken. The digital computer has had a huge impact on society. It is used to manage everything from spacecraft to factories, from healthcare systems to telecommunications, from banks to household budgets. Since its inception during World War II, the digital electronic computer has become essential to the economies of the developed world.

 

The history of how the digital computer developed dates back to the calculators of the 1600s to the pebbles (in Latin, calculi) used by the imperial Roman merchants for counting, to the abacus of the 5th century BC. Although early devices could not perform calculations automatically, they were useful in a world where math calculations, which people laboriously did in their heads or on paper, were usually done with errors. Like writing itself, mechanics help calculate when the abacus first developed to make it easier and more profitable to interact with business.

 

In the early 1800s, with the Industrial Revolution in full swing, errors in mathematical data were important; Defective transport schedules, for example, often caused shipwrecks. Such errors irritated Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a young English mathematician. Convinced that machines could perform mathematical calculations faster and more accurately than humans, in 1822 Babbage produced a small working model of what he called the “difference machine”. The calculator’s calculations were limited, but it could compile and print math charts without more human intervention than a hand to rotate the handles on top of the device. Although the British government was keen to invest £ 17,000 in the construction of a full-size differential – the equivalent of millions of dollars today – it was never built. The project was terminated in 1833 in a dispute over payments between Babbage and its employees.

 

Then Babbage had started working on an improved version – the analysis machine, the programming machine that could handle all kinds of numbers. The analysis machine had all the necessary components of a modern computer: a way to get into a tutorial, a memory, a central processing unit and a way to produce results. For information and programming, Babbage used road maps, an idea borrowed by the Frenchman Jac Joseph Jacquard (1757-1834), which they used in his modifications of 180 weaving rules.

Although the analytic engine has made history in modern computer modeling, it has not built a complete platform. Some of the problems, the lack of money and the production of methods are slowing Babbage’s vision.

 

Less than 20 years after Babbage’s death, an American named Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) was able to use a new technology, electricity, when he proposed to the U.S. government a device that could determine census data. Hollerith’s tool, which analyzes the results of 1890 documents in less than six weeks, is a seven-year development made after the 1880 certification. Hollerith then went in search of the company known as International Business Machines, Inc. (IBM) followed.

 

World War II is the driving force behind another evolution in computer technology: more sophisticated, sophisticated and rapidly changing mobile devices. . This progress was made in the design of the Colossus, a computer-aided design information system developed by the British to enforce German law; the Mark I, a large electric motor built at Harvard University under the direction of the American mathematician Howard Aiken (1903–1973); and ENIAC, a much larger mechanical device that was faster than the Mark I. Built at the University of Pennsylvania under the guidance of U.S. engineers John Mauchly (1907–1980) and J. Presper Eckert (1919–1995). ), ENIAC employs approximately 18,000 pipelines.

ENIAC has many basic principles, but the transition from one program to another involves cutting and reproducing parts of the machine. To avoid this process of preparation, John von Neumann (1903-1957), a well-known scientist in the United States, came up with the idea of ​​saving software – the process of investing in the system. computer screen technology. The Bit-Serial Optical Computer (BSOC) pictured here was the first computer to store and manage data and instructions like fire. To do this, the designers developed a visual image. The binary display represents a 13 13 (4 m) laser beam system. The fibers are transmitted by a 2.5-kilometer (4-kilometer) optic lamp that operates at approximately 50,000 per second. Another laser carrier produces a lithium niobate computer film to process data. Harry Jordan and Vincent Heuring developed this computer at the University of Colorado and released it on January 12, 1993. Photo by David Parker. Auddion Ndi Association / Photographic Researchers, Inc. collects and issues authority. databases and backups are stored on the computer itself as required. The computer is then asked to modify the program, and type the text so that it can interact with others. As for coins, von Neumann suggests using a number, which is only 0 and 1, instead of a dot system, which uses numbers 0 to 9. Then 0 and 1 can be easily used. Compared to the “on” or “off” mode for power switching, computer configuration is much easier.

 

Von Neumann ‘s ideas were introduced to the first generation of supercomputers that followed the late 1940s and 1950s. Billions of dollars are said to have been spent on today’s technology.

A number of computers called “digital” computers recognize the difference between analog computer computers. The camera app uses a symbol, not a number, regardless of the name, which is used to use computer simulation software or other things that look like someone else’s patterns or symbols. various objects (or changes in mathematics). Today, the term “computer” has become very common in “computer numbers” due to the scarcity of analog devices.

 

Although all computer development follows binary rules developed by von Neumann and other pioneers, these standards will retain machine learning status for the future, much of the research has focused on the last year in computer science. . Such devices will use the isiff variant, obviously undoubtedly the number of the Office computer.

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